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2019-07-24

behaviourist learning theory

behaviourist learning theory

Behaviorism is the name given to several approaches to psychology, especially to the study of both animal and human learning, which arose in – and flourished during – the twentieth century. These approaches rejected the use of introspective methods (wherein individuals reported on their subjective experiences), and instead were based upon the study of behavior, its modification, and its observable antecedents and consequences – which were taken to be the only scientifically objective, publicly observable, sources of data. Consequently, behaviorists rejected characterizations of psychology that were given in terms of the study of mental events or of consciousness or “mind,” and instead defined psychology as the study of behavior and its modification. This focus, the behaviorists felt, brought unity to the psychological study of animals and humans.
The emergence of behaviorism as a broad movement can be traced.

Behaviourist learning theory
Utsunomiya University, Japan
Utsunomiya University, Japan

Behaviorism is the name given to several approaches to psychology, especially to the study of both animal and human learning, which arose in – and flourished during – the twentieth century. These approaches rejected the use of introspective methods (wherein individuals reported on their subjective experiences), and instead were based upon the study of behavior, its modification, and its observable antecedents and consequences – which were taken to be the only scientifically objective, publicly observable, sources of data. Consequently, behaviorists rejected characterizations of psychology that were given in terms of the study of mental events or of consciousness or “mind,” and instead defined psychology as the study of behavior and its modification. This focus, the behaviorists felt, brought unity to the psychological study of animals and humans.
The emergence of behaviorism as a broad movement can be traced.

Learning outcomes as a concept has encountered a revival since the beginning of the Bologna process in 1999. The concept itself has a longer history with its roots in the behaviourist tradition of the 1960s. The goal of this review is to study how the historical roots of learning outcomes are noted in current research articles since the launch of the Bologna process and whether the concept of learning outcomes is used critically or uncritically. The review of 90 articles shows that the behaviourist tradition is still evident in the 21st century research with 29% of the articles directly and 11% indirectly referring uncritically to the respective publications or to the behaviourist epistemology. Only a minority of the articles, i.e. 8%, was found to be critical towards the behaviourist meaning of learning outcomes.
Only 8% of the articles were critical towards the behaviourist tradition.

References:

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/9781118784235.eelt0155
http://link.springer.com/10.1007%2F978-1-4419-1428-6_750
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1747938X17300283
http://link.springer.com/10.1007%2F978-0-387-79061-9_2695

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