Current theoretical accounts of learning view students as active seekers and processors of information (Bandura, 1986; Pintrich, Cross, Kozma, & McKeachie, 1986). Learners’ cognitions can influence the instigation, direction, and persistence of achievement-related behaviors (Brophy, 1983; Corno & Snow, 1986; Schunk, 1989; Weiner, 1985; Winne, 1985). Research conducted within various theoretical traditions places particular emphasis on students’ beliefs concerning their capabilities to exercise control over important aspects of their lives (Bandura, 1982; Corno & Man-dinach, 1983; Covington & Omelich, 1979; Rotter, 1966; Weiner, 1979).
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
Freud, Sigmund – psychoanalysis
Vygotsky, Lev – sociocultural theory
This view leads to a classroom focus on using learning strategies that have been observed in successful language learners and to a view of the learner as an ‘information-processor’, with limitations as to how much new information can be retained, and who needs strategies to be able to transfer information into memory.
A cognitive theory of learning sees second language acquisition as a conscious and reasoned thinking process, involving the deliberate use of learning strategies. Learning strategies are special ways of processing information that enhance comprehension, learning or retention of information. This explanation of language learning contrasts strongly with the behaviourist account of language learning, which sees language learning as an unconscious, automatic process.